Nutritional Physiological Mechanism of Betaine
1 Provide highly efficient active methyl for the body
After years of research, it was found that betaine, as an intermediate metabolite in animals, indirectly participated in animal protein and fat metabolism. From the perspective of its physiological mechanism, betaine is indirectly involved in many physiological metabolic processes in animals by providing methyl and synthesizing a variety of nutrients. Methyl is a necessary group for the synthesis of many substances with important physiological activities in animals, such as protein, carnitine, creatine, phospholipid, adrenaline, ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid. Choline, one of the main methyl donors of animals, cannot provide methyl. It needs to be converted into betaine through mitochondria to have the ability to provide methyl, and to synthesize lipoproteins, amino acids and other substances. Therefore, When the supply of choline in the feed is insufficient, the addition of betaine can partially replace choline. The proper supplement of betaine in the diet can replace the methyl supply of methionine, another major methyl donor, so as to save methionine and improve the utilization rate of protein. The ability of betaine to provide methyl can also promote the synthesis of carnitine in animals and improve the intensity of fat metabolism.
2. Inhibit fat deposition, improve meat yield and meat quality
Early studies showed that betaine had a certain anti fat effect. Adding betaine to the diet would reduce the body fat and increase the protein content of growing chickens. Betaine can provide methyl to methylaminoethanol to produce choline. Choline plays an important role in the metabolism of esters, thus promoting the oxidation of fatty acids and the generation of phospholipids, and improving the operation speed of esters. By promoting the synthesis of phospholipids in the body, betaine, on the one hand, reduces the activity of lipase in the liver, on the other hand, promotes the synthesis of apolipoprotein in the liver, Among them, very low density lipoprotein is the main carrier protein used to carry endogenous triglycerides, promote the migration of fat in the liver, and thus reduce the content of triglycerides in the liver.
3 Involve in amino acid and protein metabolism
Betaine is closely related to the metabolism of methionine. On the one hand, betaine reduces the consumption of methionine by providing methyl; On the other hand, betaine promotes the transformation of homocysteine by increasing the activity of homocysteine S-methyltransferase, and has the effect of net methionine increase. According to research, betaine can significantly increase the crude protein content and RNA/DNA ratio in animal liver and muscle, while the serum uric acid content is significantly reduced, which indicates that betaine promotes protein synthesis in the body, reduces protein decomposition, and increases protein deposition in tissues. The mechanism may be that betaine accelerates the processing and modification of RNA by enhancing the methyl metabolism of the body.
4 As a substance regulating osmotic pressure
Betaine has a buffering effect on the change of osmotic pressure. When the external osmotic pressure changes dramatically, betaine can be absorbed by cells to maintain normal osmotic pressure balance, and prevent water loss and salt intrusion in cells. Diarrhea of piglets or coccidiosis of poultry often lead to dehydration of animals and imbalance of intestinal ions and osmotic pressure. At this time, the body needs more methyl, so the body needs methylation reaction to establish an immune defense mechanism. In addition, betaine can effectively prevent water loss and hyperkalemia caused by diarrhea by improving the function of Na/K pump of cell membrane, and plays a very important role in maintaining and stabilizing the ion balance and function of animal intestine.
5. It has the effect of anti stress and improving immunity
Betaine has obvious sedative effect, enhances the hypnotic effect of barbital, anti noxious stimulation and antipyretic effect. Chickens are very susceptible to coccidia infection and affect the intestinal ion balance. Although anti coccidian drugs can change the ion concentration of the parasite cells and kill the parasites, they also affect the host cells, especially the intestinal ion concentration and thus affect the normal function of the intestine. Betaine provides methyl as a cell osmotic protector, which can maintain the normal osmotic pressure of animal cells, prevent dehydration caused by water loss in cells, and stabilize the balance of intestinal ions. So as to improve the resistance of the chicken.
6. Effect on neuroendocrine
It was found that betaine could significantly increase the serum growth hormone level of finishing pigs. Betaine is helpful to the conversion of norosine and N-methyl-asparosine (NMDA) receptor by increasing methyl group. On the other hand, glycine formed by betaine in the process of methylation promotes the activation of NMDA receptor. In this way, by activating NMDA receptor in hypothalamus, betaine enhances the endocrine function of hypothalamus, thus promoting the release of hypothalamic hormones. Hypothalamic hormones also act on the adenohypophysis adenylate cyclase cAMP protein kinase system, promoting the release of GH, FSH and LH from the adenohypophysis.
7 Stability of vitamins in feed
The stability of vitamins is poor, and they are easily affected by light, heat and humidity. They will be gradually consumed over time. Especially in the process of feed processing, storage and transportation, most vitamins have more or less reduced potency. In addition, choline chloride is often the main cause of vitamin destruction due to its large water absorption and strong acidity. Betaine has a strong moisturizing property, which can enhance the stability of vitamins, prevent the oxidation of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, and protect their potency. The results showed that betaine and choline chloride were tested for vitamin stability in chicken premix. It was found that betaine could improve the stability of vitamin A, K3, B1 and B6 during storage at 20~25 ℃. It was found that the higher the temperature, the stronger the effect of betaine. It was a more economical and practical method to successfully replace choline in the diet with betaine.